Now is a critical time for building institutional memory in Nepal

An article in the Guardian calls on the Nepalese government and the international community to learn the lessons of last Saturday’s earthquake.

Overseas Development Institute’s Katie Peters, quoted in the article, said that reconstruction efforts must not undermine proper planning for the inevitable disaster events of the future. “There’s always a tension between wanting to rebuild as soon as possible – which is human nature – and taking the time to make sure that there’s consideration of the whole range of disasters that Nepal faces and making sure that we don’t carry risk into our reconstruction efforts,” Peters said.

The article also shows the image below, taken a month before the earthquake, of Nepal’s deputy prime minister, Bamdev Gautam, inaugurating a humanitarian staging area at Kathmandu airport as part of a risk-reduction strategy. An earthquake of this scale had been predicted for some time, but only when one actually occurred did it reveal the extent to which disaster management needs to be a major priority.

Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister of Nepal Bamdev Gautam (L) inaugurates the first Humanitarian Staging Area at Tribhuvan International Airport in Kathmandu, Nepal, March 26, 2015. The United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) and the Ministry of Home Affairs and Civil Authority of Nepal inaugurated the country's first Humanitarian Staging Area here on Thursday.

Photograph: Pratap Thapa/Xinhua

Peters also noted that the international community had learned much from the 2010 earthquake that devastated Haiti.

Pacific island tropical cyclones are more frequent and globally relevant, yet less studied

Typhoon Haiyan devastated the Philippines in 2013 and illuminates the fact that the majority of tropical cyclone (TC) research has focused on the Atlantic Basin, continental socio-ecological system.

A new article in Frontiers in Envrionmental Science by Thomas Marler of the Western Pacific Tropical Research Center argues that Pacific island tropical cyclones are more frequent and globally relevant, yet less studied.

The role of art in social memory of disaster

art image for blog

I am wondering what is the role of art in social memory of natural disasters?  In New South Wales Australia this week we are hearing a lot about the commemoration of the first anniversary of the bushfires in the Blue Mountains.

These fires were notable because, although there were no human deaths, there was significant impact through the loss of hundreds of homes.  The Blue Mountains area is also on the perimeter of Sydney so very familiar and close to Australia’s largest, most densely populated city.   Also the fires occurred in Autumn, prior to what the community would consider the ‘bushfire season’.

I found an interesting news article on photographic art exhibitions that reflect on the fires and recovery period.  Clearly visual art is well recognised in the academic literature for its role in healing following trauma.  However I have found little reference to its role in social memory of natural disasters?  Yet surely there must be a link? So I went hunting.

There is an interesting blog, Blended memory, by PhD student Tim Fawns on how digital photography interacts with what we remember and forget.

There is also an emerging vein to follow about use of digital technologies /social platforms whereby citizens use such technology to “preserve biographical remembrances interwoven with the collective memory of the past of the city; to express emotions and biographical anecdotes; to overcome the trauma” (Farinosi & Micalizzi 2013).

Drawing lessons from past disaster responses in the Philippines

A seminar at Durham University will explore lessons from the disaster risk reduction and management responses to Typhoon Haiyan in 2013; the 1990 Baguio Earthquake; 1991 Mount Pinatubo Eruption; and 2004 Mudfloods caused by Typhoon Winnie in the Philippines.

The seminar by Dr Nancy Parreño from the Philippine Women’s University and Dr Inès V. Danao from the Asian Social Institute is entitled “Exploring disaster responses in the Philippines” and will take place on 20 October 2014 at 13:00 to 14:30, W007, Dept of Geography.

Floods, storms and quakes uproot 22 million in 2013, numbers to rise

A report from the International Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) of the Norwegian Refugee Council finds that ” more than twice as many people are affected by natural disasters than 40 years ago and the trend is expected to worsen as more people move to crowded cities in developing countries.”

Story at

Complementary concepts? ‘Social memory’ and ‘time stories’

The term social memory seems to be taking hold in the resilience and disaster fields but I came across a new term today that I thought was interesting.  Fincher et al (2014) in a paper in Geoforum use the term ‘time stories’ which they define as ‘narratives connecting pasts, presents and futures’

There were two aspects of this paper that I found interesting.  Firstly the authors describe four ways that geographers consider linked aspects of ‘time and place that range from the daily aspects of ‘lived experiences’ to imaginings of the future.  I thought that social memory, as we consider it in this blog, links best with their understanding:

The third part of our understanding of time is that the time periods of past, present and future—those imagined,  remembered and experienced times—form a central organising mechanism for thoughts and actions. Time stories are central to when people make sense of events and predictions. Philosophers have focused on elucidating the relationship between past, present and future, those three phases of time that are unable really to be demarcated empirically because of the human habit of forming ‘‘an extended present’’ from them (Shipman and Baert, 2000, p. 317).

Secondly, I thought one key finding of the paper – that for community members it is the continuities that are very important – was interesting given our blog’s focus on disasters.  Because we know that continuities can abruptly and rapidly become discontinuities.  So I wonder how ‘time stories’ would play out in a community that has experienced a natural disaster?

Do people link flooding to climate change?

From Talking Climate’s newsletter 7 July:

One recent academic paper showed an association between perceptions of changes in weather (especially flooding) and beliefs about climate change. However, the study couldn’t establish causation: people who were already concerned about climate change may have simply been more likely to notice changes and attribute them to climate change.

The perception of links between extreme weather and climate change is a burgeoning field of research. Another question, though not the focus of this study (Taylor et al. 2014), is whether the beliefs of people who are already sceptical about climate change are influenced by extreme weather. In our analysis of media coverage of the Brisbane flood in 2011, Anne Leitch and I found that narratives reflecting a denial of climate change seemed to be reinforced by the flood and other extreme weather events. That is, by situating the flood in the historical record and current political context, a case is built to deny the existence of climate change.

One reader wrote in a letter to the editor that: “There were a lot more floods in the 19th century and I don’t think they had much in the way of global warming or rising CO2 levels back then.”

Another wrote: ‘‘carbon dioxide in the atmosphere had nothing to do with the recent severe flooding in Australia. Making exaggerated claims regarding CO2 only shows the lengths people will go to in order to score political points for the introduction of a big new (carbon) tax on everything.”